Classify the following pollutants as primary pollutants (PP) and secondary pollutants (SP).
Ozone, Carbon monoxide, Particulate matter, Photochemical smog, Nitrogen oxides, Aerosol/mist, Hydrocarbons, Peroxy-Acetyl-Nitrate, Sulphur dioxide
Primary Pollutants: Those pollutants which are directly emitted from a source are called primary pollutants. Particulate matter, oxides of nitrogen, and toxic metals are all examples of primary pollutants as they can be directly associated with the burning of fossil fuels, volcanic eruptions, or industrial effluents.
The important primary air pollutants are:
1. Oxides of sulfur, particularly sulfur dioxide (SO2);
2. Oxides of carbon like carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2), particularly carbon monoxide (CO);
3. Oxides of nitrogen, like NO, NO2, NO3 (expressed as NOx);
4. Volatile organic compounds, mostly hydrocarbons; and
5. Suspended particulate matter (SPM).
Primary Pollutants: Co, CO2, SOX, NOX, Aerosols, Bacteria, Pollens, Suspended particulates, Fly ash, Mist, Dew, Mist, Soot, Volcanoes, etc.
Secondary Pollutants: Primary pollutants often react with one another or with water vapor, aided and abetted by the sunlight, to form entirely a new set of pollutants, called the secondary pollutants.
The important secondary pollutants are:
(i) Sulphuric acid (H2SO4);
(ii) Ozone (O3);
(iii) Formaldehydes; and
(iv) Peroxy-acyl-nitrate (PAN); etc.
Secondary Pollutants: Chlorofluorocarbon, Ozone, Smog, Acid rain (H2SO4, HNO3, H2CO3), PAN (Peroxyacetyl Nitrate), PBN (Peroxybutyl Nitrate), PPN (Peroxypropyl Nitrate)
|Primary Pollutants||Secondary Pollutants|
Carbon monoxide (CO)
Oxides of nitrogen (NOx, NO)
Sulfur oxides (SOx)
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) highly
Particulate matter (dust, ash, salt particles)